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Jazz Element #2: Swing Eighths and Syncopation


The rules of improvisation are established on a balance of harmonic structure and melodic freedom. But jazz is also about rhythmic structure and freedoms.

In performing music, it is essential that each member of the ensemble allow their inner metronome or “pulse-meter” to become synchronized with all others performing at the same time.

In its most perfect state, this synchronization forms a rhythmic “groove” which is both consistent and pulsatingly predictable. This is the element that causes the toes or fingers to tap or the body to move on the dance floor.  If the improvised solo causes mind and emotion to connect with the music, the rhythmic groove is that which brings the body into the musical experience.

A performance of a classical symphony rarely creates a groove with the rhythm. The conductor is allowed to take great freedoms in the rhythmic consistencies. A phrase may push ahead or pull back dramatically in just a few measures. While its beauty lies in the artistry of the performers and the ethereal musicality of the waves of sound, and the mind and emotions may be moved, the body doesn’t always connect and want to get up and dance.

A Strauss waltz or Sousa march, on the other hand, both create rhythmic grooves which will generate a bodily response provided the listener isn’t musically bigoted against such musical antiquities.

A groove in jazz, however, is only one of three rhythmic parts which cause the music to “swing.” The two others are syncopation and the use of swing-eighths.

Syncopation is to the groove what the improvised solo is to the structured chord changes. It is the freedom to play “against” the pulsing rhythm and not always “with” it. Syncopation is either a delay or an anticipation of the stressed rhythmic pulse. Most often it is the melody delaying or anticipating the beat in the groove. On occasion, whole sections of instruments or the entire ensemble might break from the groove together creating a planned syncopated punch to a series of chords before falling once more into rhythmic pulses.

If the rhythm being played by the piano, drums, and bass (known as the rhythm section) is erratic or imprecise, no groove is established and the power and excitement of a syncopated melody is significantly weakened. However, with an established rhythmic pulse, the syncopated melody has the freedom to bob and weave in the same way a kite floats back and forth in the wind while still being connected by a string to a secure object on the ground.

In addition to the groove and syncopation, the swing of jazz is built upon what is known as “swing-eighths.”

In its purest sense, music is very mathematical. The relationship of notes in scales and chords are built upon mathematical concepts. Pythagoras, one of the earliest mathematicians (5th century B.C.) is known not only for that “right-angle triangle/square of the hypotenuse” theory, but also for developing some of the first theories about harmonies and intervals. Even as late as 1746, William Tans’ur, writing in his book, A New Musical Grammar described a “Master of Musick” as one who

“must not only be a grammarian, but also a Master of Letters and Languages, in order to unfold what is    locked up in the Closets of the Learned – He must be an Arithmetitian [sic] and able to explain Numbers, and even the Misteries [sic] of Algebra; and also a Geometrician, to evince a great variety, the Original of Intervals, Consonant and Dissonant…” (Tans’ur, 1746, p. 9.)

On a much simpler scale, mathematics is basic to an understanding of note values in music. A whole note which is given four beats can be divided exactly in half to create a half note (two beats), again in half to create a quarter note (one beat), again in half to create an eighth note (one-half beat) and again and again, each time dividing the note value exactly in half.

In strict rhythms, then, a quarter note, when divided in half, is given two equal eighth notes. These “equal eighths” are the pattern followed in most classical and folk music. While occasional triplet eighths can be found, these are the exception to the rule.

In jazz, however, the unequal 2/3:1/3 ratio became a standard part of the musical language within the first two decades of the century.

Although the ratio was theoretically 2:1, in actual practice, the swing eighth was never that exact. If any given solo containing swing eighths were measured, the ratios might be anywhere from 60:40 to 70:30. In that sense, swing eighths were not an exact formula so much as a rhythmic window which allowed the jazz musicians to adjust the note values according to the “feel” of the music.

From the early 1920s, uneven or swing eighths combined with syncopation and set against a steady groove beat formed the rhythmic foundation of jazz.

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Study Units

An Overview

Ch. 1: Understanding Pitch

Ch. 2: Understanding Musical Pulse

Ch. 3: Understanding Volume

Ch. 4: Understanding Tone

Ch. 5: Understanding Melody

Ch. 6: Understanding Harmony

Ch. 7: Understanding Rhythm

Ch. 8: Understanding Bass

Ch. 9: Understanding Countermelody

Ch. 10: Understanding Structure

Ch. 11: Understanding Instrumentation

Ch. 12: Understanding Tempo

An Overview

Ch. 1: 19th Century: Pre-Foster

Ch. 2: Folk Music by the People

Ch. 3: Popular Music in its Infancy

Ch. 4: Stephen Foster – “Father of American Popular Music”

Ch. 5: The Importance of Stephen Foster

Ch. 6: Scott Joplin – “King of Ragtime”

Ch. 7: The Player Piano – Automated Music

Ch. 8: John Philip Sousa – “The March King”

Ch. 9: John Philip Sousa – Recording Artist and Activist

An Overview

Ch. 1: John Lomax – Recording American Roots Music

Ch. 2: Woody Guthrie – “Father of Modern American Folk Music”

Ch. 3: Leadbelly & Pete Seeger: End of the First Wave

Ch. 4: The Kingston Trio – Beginning of the Second Wave

Ch. 5: Joan Baez – “First Lady of Folk Music”

Ch. 6: Peter, Paul & Mary – Balancing the Message

Ch. 7: Robert Zimmerman – The Beginning of an American Icon

Ch. 8: Dylan in New York City

Ch. 9: Dylan after Newport

Ch. 10: The Importance of Dylan

Ch. 11: Folk Music in the 21st Century

An Overview

Ch. 1: The Roots of Country

Ch. 2: Bristol Beginnings

Ch. 3: The Grand Ole Opry

Ch. 4: Cowboys and the Movies

Ch. 5: Western Swing

Ch. 6: Bluegrass: Hillbilly on Caffeine

Ch. 7: Honky-tonk: Merging Two into One

Ch. 8: The Nashville Sound: Country-Pop

Ch. 9: Rockabilly – Country meets R&B

Ch. 10: Country Feminists Find Their Voice

Ch. 11: The Bakersfield Sound

Ch. 12: Austin “Outlaw” Country

Ch. 13: Neo-Traditionalists at the end of the 20th Century

Ch. 14: Mainstreaming Country in the ‘90s

Ch. 15: Redesigning Country in the 21st Century

An Overview

Ch. 1: What is Jazz?

Ch. 2: Before It Was Jazz

Ch. 3: Jazz is Born!

Ch. 4: Early Jazz Musicians

Ch. 5: Louis Armstrong

Ch. 6: Chicago and Harlem – Hub of 1920s Jazz

Ch. 7: Big Band – Jazz Swing!

Ch. 8: Big Band Musicians and Singers

Ch. 9: Jump Blues and Bop

Ch. 10: Cool Jazz

Ch. 11: Hard Bop

Ch. 12: Free Jazz – Breaking the Rules

Ch. 13: Fusion – The Jazz-Rock-Funk Experience

Ch. 14: Third Stream and World Jazz

Ch. 15: New Age & Smooth Jazz

Ch. 16: Summary – Jazz Lives!

An Overview

Ch. 1: Blues – The Granddaddy of American Popular Music

Ch. 2: Where Did the Blues Come From?

Ch. 3: What Are the Blues?

Ch. 4: How to Build the Blues

Ch. 5: Classic Blues – The Early Years

Ch. 6: Delta Blues – Authentic Beginnings

Ch. 7: Blues in the City – Migration and Power

Ch. 8: Blues in Britain – Redefining the Masters

Ch. 9: Contemporary Blues – Maturity and Respect

Ch. 10: The Relevancy of the Blues Today

Ch. 1: Timelines, Cultures & Technology

Ch. 2: Pre-Rock Influences

Ch. 3: Rock is Born!

Ch. 4: Rock is Named

Ch. 5: Doo-Wop

Ch. 6: Independent Record Labels

Ch. 7: Technology Shapes Rock ‘n’ Roll

Ch. 8: The Plan to Mainstream Rock ‘n’ Roll

Ch. 9: Payola – Rock ‘n’ Roll’s First Scandal

Ch. 1: Crafting Sound in the Studio/Producers and Hit Songs

Ch. 2: West Coast Sound: Beach, Surf, and Teens

Ch. 3: The British Invasion: Two Prongs – Pop & Blues

Ch. 4: Motown and the Development of a Black Pop-Rock Sound

Ch. 5: Soul Music: Gospel and R&B in the Deep South

Ch. 6: The Sounds of Bubble Gum Pop-Rock

Ch. 7: The Arrival of Folk-Rock

Ch. 8: Psychedelic Rock ‘n’ Roll

Ch. 9: Early Guitar Gods of Rock

Ch. 10: Rock Festivals: The Rise and Fall of Music, Peace, and Love

Ch. 11: Anti-Woodstock and Shock Rock Movements

Ch. 1: Technological Breakthroughs

Ch. 2: Electronic Dance Music

Ch. 3: Hip-Hop & Rap – An Introduction

Ch. 4: The Beginnings of Rap

Ch. 5: Old School Rap – Up From the Streets

Ch. 6: Rap’s Golden Age

Ch. 7: East Coast – Political Rap

Ch. 8: West Coast – Gangsta Rap

Ch. 9: The Fragmentation of Rap – Pop, Party & More

Ch. 10: Further Fragmentation – Different Directions

Ch. 11: The Importance of Rap

Ch. 1: Musical Stage Productions in America before the 1800s

Ch. 2: Minstrel Shows and Melodramas

Ch. 3: Stage Presentations in the Late 19th Century

Ch. 4: Early 20th Century: Revues and Operettas

Ch. 5: The Arrival of the Modern American Musical

Ch. 6: Great Partnerships in Book-Musicals

Ch. 7: Musical Theatre Composers in the mid-Century

Ch. 8: Fresh Voices on the Stage in the 1960s

Ch. 9: Two Dominant Forces at the End of the Century

Ch. 10: New Voices at the End of the Century

Ch. 11: New Voices, New Sounds in the New Century

Ch. 12: Musical Theatre Glossary

Ch. 13: Is it “Theatre” or “Theater”?

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