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Ragtime Influences Pop and Classical Music

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Even as it was being rejected by the American populace, the unique energy and syncopated rhythms of ragtime was influencing classical composers in Europe. In the early 1900’s, French composers Claude Debussy and Erik Satie, both known for their progressive compositional ideas at the piano, used ragtime elements in piano works such as Golliwog’s Cakewalk (Debussy, 1908) and Parade (Satie, 1917). Russian composer Igor Stravinsky, known for his innovative orchestral works, gave a ragtime flavor to significant compositions such as The Soldier’s Tale (L’histoire du Soldat, 1918)

Debussy’s “Golliwog’s Cakewalk” (1908) shows the influence of American ragtime.

In the early 1910’s, ragtime piano was being absorbed in two directions. A more sanitized form of the rhythms and sounds were given lyrics and incorporated into pop music. Songwriters in Tin Pan Alley such as Irving Berlin pushed pop music in a new direction with the ragtime song.

But a truer descendant of ragtime was the rhythmic style of piano playing called “stride piano”. Stride was similar to ragtime in that it contrasted even left-hand octaves and chords with a syncopated melody in the right hand. Its difference was in the fact that it abandoned the “strains” structure for a more flexible format and increased the tempo of the performance. Stride piano, as played by early jazzmen like Eubie Blake, Fats Waller and Earl Hines was an essential foundation for early jazz.

Scott Bradlee performs The Beatles’ “Hey, Jude” in a stride piano style.

Although most of jazz’s ancestors were instrumental in nature, at least three forms of vocal music helped shape its beginnings.

The spiritual, that 19th century vehicle for religious expression, and the field-hollars or work songs were source points for passion and vocal improvisation for early jazz singers. These song forms, neither of which was limited by written transcriptions, allowed the singers to perform with significant melodic and rhythmic improvisation.

The third vocal form which helped to shape early jazz music was the blues. Not only was the simple “twelve bar blues” structure (AAB with I, IV & V chords) a common form for early jazz, but the bent note (a sliding into the pitch), which was a characteristic of blues as well as spiritual singers became a key characteristic of the jazz language for both singers and instrumentalists.

This, then, was the starting place and time for the style known as jazz. It was influenced by the rhythms of Congo Square and the syncopation of ragtime. It was played on instruments borrowed from military bands, on those made by street corner musicians and on the piano – that versatile staple of middle class parlors and bordello front rooms.

Its bent notes and improvisation was borrowed from blues and spirituals alike. Its structure was part blues, part ragtime, part spontaneity. Its musicians were both “schooled” and self-taught. Its nature was lively and energetic and at least subliminally sexual. It was incubated on the street corners, grown in the brothels of Storyville, popularized in parades, dances and more respectable events, and finally made ready for the world outside the confines of New Orleans, Louisiana by 1917.

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Study Units

An Overview

Ch. 1: Understanding Pitch

Ch. 2: Understanding Musical Pulse

Ch. 3: Understanding Volume

Ch. 4: Understanding Tone

Ch. 5: Understanding Melody

Ch. 6: Understanding Harmony

Ch. 7: Understanding Rhythm

Ch. 8: Understanding Bass

Ch. 9: Understanding Countermelody

Ch. 10: Understanding Structure

Ch. 11: Understanding Instrumentation

Ch. 12: Understanding Tempo

An Overview

Ch. 1: 19th Century: Pre-Foster

Ch. 2: Folk Music by the People

Ch. 3: Popular Music in its Infancy

Ch. 4: Stephen Foster – “Father of American Popular Music”

Ch. 5: The Importance of Stephen Foster

Ch. 6: Scott Joplin – “King of Ragtime”

Ch. 7: The Player Piano – Automated Music

Ch. 8: John Philip Sousa – “The March King”

Ch. 9: John Philip Sousa – Recording Artist and Activist

An Overview

Ch. 1: John Lomax – Recording American Roots Music

Ch. 2: Woody Guthrie – “Father of Modern American Folk Music”

Ch. 3: Leadbelly & Pete Seeger: End of the First Wave

Ch. 4: The Kingston Trio – Beginning of the Second Wave

Ch. 5: Joan Baez – “First Lady of Folk Music”

Ch. 6: Peter, Paul & Mary – Balancing the Message

Ch. 7: Robert Zimmerman – The Beginning of an American Icon

Ch. 8: Dylan in New York City

Ch. 9: Dylan after Newport

Ch. 10: The Importance of Dylan

Ch. 11: Folk Music in the 21st Century

An Overview

Ch. 1: The Roots of Country

Ch. 2: Bristol Beginnings

Ch. 3: The Grand Ole Opry

Ch. 4: Cowboys and the Movies

Ch. 5: Western Swing

Ch. 6: Bluegrass: Hillbilly on Caffeine

Ch. 7: Honky-tonk: Merging Two into One

Ch. 8: The Nashville Sound: Country-Pop

Ch. 9: Rockabilly – Country meets R&B

Ch. 10: Country Feminists Find Their Voice

Ch. 11: The Bakersfield Sound

Ch. 12: Austin “Outlaw” Country

Ch. 13: Neo-Traditionalists at the end of the 20th Century

Ch. 14: Mainstreaming Country in the ‘90s

Ch. 15: Redesigning Country in the 21st Century

An Overview

Ch. 1: What is Jazz?

Ch. 2: Before It Was Jazz

Ch. 3: Jazz is Born!

Ch. 4: Early Jazz Musicians

Ch. 5: Louis Armstrong

Ch. 6: Chicago and Harlem – Hub of 1920s Jazz

Ch. 7: Big Band – Jazz Swing!

Ch. 8: Big Band Musicians and Singers

Ch. 9: Jump Blues and Bop

Ch. 10: Cool Jazz

Ch. 11: Hard Bop

Ch. 12: Free Jazz – Breaking the Rules

Ch. 13: Fusion – The Jazz-Rock-Funk Experience

Ch. 14: Third Stream and World Jazz

Ch. 15: New Age & Smooth Jazz

Ch. 16: Summary – Jazz Lives!

An Overview

Ch. 1: Blues – The Granddaddy of American Popular Music

Ch. 2: Where Did the Blues Come From?

Ch. 3: What Are the Blues?

Ch. 4: How to Build the Blues

Ch. 5: Classic Blues – The Early Years

Ch. 6: Delta Blues – Authentic Beginnings

Ch. 7: Blues in the City – Migration and Power

Ch. 8: Blues in Britain – Redefining the Masters

Ch. 9: Contemporary Blues – Maturity and Respect

Ch. 10: The Relevancy of the Blues Today

Ch. 1: Timelines, Cultures & Technology

Ch. 2: Pre-Rock Influences

Ch. 3: Rock is Born!

Ch. 4: Rock is Named

Ch. 5: Doo-Wop

Ch. 6: Independent Record Labels

Ch. 7: Technology Shapes Rock ‘n’ Roll

Ch. 8: The Plan to Mainstream Rock ‘n’ Roll

Ch. 9: Payola – Rock ‘n’ Roll’s First Scandal

Ch. 1: Crafting Sound in the Studio/Producers and Hit Songs

Ch. 2: West Coast Sound: Beach, Surf, and Teens

Ch. 3: The British Invasion: Two Prongs – Pop & Blues

Ch. 4: Motown and the Development of a Black Pop-Rock Sound

Ch. 5: Soul Music: Gospel and R&B in the Deep South

Ch. 6: The Sounds of Bubble Gum Pop-Rock

Ch. 7: The Arrival of Folk-Rock

Ch. 8: Psychedelic Rock ‘n’ Roll

Ch. 9: Early Guitar Gods of Rock

Ch. 10: Rock Festivals: The Rise and Fall of Music, Peace, and Love

Ch. 11: Anti-Woodstock and Shock Rock Movements

Ch. 1: Technological Breakthroughs

Ch. 2: Electronic Dance Music

Ch. 3: Hip-Hop & Rap – An Introduction

Ch. 4: The Beginnings of Rap

Ch. 5: Old School Rap – Up From the Streets

Ch. 6: Rap’s Golden Age

Ch. 7: East Coast – Political Rap

Ch. 8: West Coast – Gangsta Rap

Ch. 9: The Fragmentation of Rap – Pop, Party & More

Ch. 10: Further Fragmentation – Different Directions

Ch. 11: The Importance of Rap

Ch. 1: Musical Stage Productions in America before the 1800s

Ch. 2: Minstrel Shows and Melodramas

Ch. 3: Stage Presentations in the Late 19th Century

Ch. 4: Early 20th Century: Revues and Operettas

Ch. 5: The Arrival of the Modern American Musical

Ch. 6: Great Partnerships in Book-Musicals

Ch. 7: Musical Theatre Composers in the mid-Century

Ch. 8: Fresh Voices on the Stage in the 1960s

Ch. 9: Two Dominant Forces at the End of the Century

Ch. 10: New Voices at the End of the Century

Ch. 11: New Voices, New Sounds in the New Century

Ch. 12: Musical Theatre Glossary

Ch. 13: Is it “Theatre” or “Theater”?

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