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Ch. 10: New Voices at the end of the 20th Century

New Voices at the end of the 20th Century

Since 1990, Broadway has found financial and artistic security in launching revivals of dozens of past classics. Fiddler on the Roof, Guys and Dolls, Carousel, Damn Yankees, The King and I, A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, Chicago, Cabaret, Annie Get Your Gun, Kiss Me, Kate, 42nd Street, Oklahoma, Into the Woods, Nine, The Pajama Game, Sweeney Todd, South Pacific, Gypsy, Hair, West Side Story, La Cage aux Folles, and A Little Night Music is only a list of the revivals who won Tony awards from 1991 to 2010. During that two-decade period almost every musical show of significance found a new life in a new set of clothes on Broadway.

With such an emphasis put on revivals, the opportunity for new composers to get their work onstage has been difficult. A few new voices have come to successfully challenge the existing royalty.

As early as 1982 the new generation was being heard; Maury Yeston brought Nine to the stage, following it with a collaboration on Grand Hotel (1989) and his most successful show, Titanic in 1997. 1960s country & western singer and songwriter Roger Miller shaped the Mark Twain story of Huck Finn and Jim, the runaway slave into the Broadway show Big River, which had just over 1,000 performances beginning in 1985. Lucy Simon (sister of ‘70s pop-rock singer Carly Simon) created The Secret Garden, which opened in 1991 to a respectable run of 706 performances.

Composer Alan Menken staged the tongue-incheek homage to “B” horror movies, Little Shop of Horrors, a surprising success that had a first run of 2,209 performances starting in 1982. Menken’s Broadway success opened other doors for him and his lyricist Howard Ashman, including working for Disney studios on animated movie musicals. The first Disney project was The Littlest Mermaid (1989) which was so well received with families (The Disney Company’s main target audience), Disney began to use Menken and Ashman to churn out more animated musicals: Beauty and the Beast (1991), and Aladdin (1992). After Ashman’s death in 1992, Menken began collaborating with Tim Rice (Webber’s former lyricist) for another series of Disney musicals: Pocahontas (1995), Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996) and Hercules(1997).

In 1994 the Disney Company decided on a bold move: taking an animated musical and creating a live stage version. Their first project, Beauty and the Beast (1994), brought to the stage all the characters and songs known and loved by families for three years. With some new music by Menken, Beast became an astounding success. Broadway and Disney, two of the cornerstones of the American entertainment industry, had found common ground and incredible success. Beast ran for over 5,400 performances, proving that the target audience for the modern American musical was not over the age of forty. Disney followed the success of Beauty and the Beast with a stage version of their 1994 animated musical: The Lion King. With music provided by Sir Elton John and lyrics by Tim Rice, Lion King eventually became more successful than Beauty and the Beast, running for over 4,500 performances with an estimated 50 million seeing productions around the world. One of Disney’s latest projects is a stage version of their movie musical Mary Poppins, which opened in 2006. The animated blockbuster “Frozen” is planned to open on Broadway in the spring of 2018.

While revivals and live versions of animated shows held a large share of the Broadway listings, new artists came through with novel musicals. Jonathan Larson adapted the classic opera La Boheme as the starting point for his rock musical Rent in 1996. Though it was both his debut and his final work (Larson died a few weeks before the premiere) the show made an impact on Broadway and its audiences. A powerful, character-driven musical didn’t fit the pattern of previous rock musicals, which were protests or declarations of independence from authorities. Rent used humor, sadness, celebration and honest statements of friendship, hope, fear, love, despair, and ultimately, death. What began as a seven-week off-Broadway run was transferred to Broadway for a series of 5,012 performances.

Musical theatre has always been an American art form, only in the past 40 years have British composers (particularly Andrew Lloyd Webber) contributed to the literature with some significant shows. It is a surprise then, to note that two of the most important musicals of the late ’80s and early ‘90s was written by a French composer. Claude-Michel Schonberg’s 1987 show, Les Miserables, was the story of the French Revolution at the beginning of the 19th century, based on the classic novel by Victor Hugo. In an epic fashion, with heroes and villains, tragedy, loss, love, and ultimately revolution, audiences had no problem connecting with the story of triumphant spirits in the face of oppression. After opening in London, the New York production sold $11 million in advance tickets before the first of 6,680 curtains.

Schonberg followed Les Miserables four years later with his story of love at the end of the Viet Nam war – Miss Saigon. As Jonathan Larson did five years later with Rent, Schonberg started with a story borrowed from classic opera, in this case, Madame Butterfly. After adjusting and altering the story line, introducing new characters, changing the location (Saigon at the end of the Viet Nam war),and crafting new music, lyrics and dialogue, Schonberg and his lyricist Alain Boublil created Miss Saigon in 1989. While the success was not as great as Les MiserablesMiss Saigon opened on Broadway and ran for over 4,000 performances. Like Les Miserables, touring companies and regional and global productions have taken Miss Saigon to millions of audience members.

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Study Units

An Overview

Ch. 1: Understanding Pitch

Ch. 2: Understanding Musical Pulse

Ch. 3: Understanding Volume

Ch. 4: Understanding Tone

Ch. 5: Understanding Melody

Ch. 6: Understanding Harmony

Ch. 7: Understanding Rhythm

Ch. 8: Understanding Bass

Ch. 9: Understanding Countermelody

Ch. 10: Understanding Structure

Ch. 11: Understanding Instrumentation

Ch. 12: Understanding Tempo

An Overview

Ch. 1: 19th Century: Pre-Foster

Ch. 2: Folk Music by the People

Ch. 3: Popular Music in its Infancy

Ch. 4: Stephen Foster – “Father of American Popular Music”

Ch. 5: The Importance of Stephen Foster

Ch. 6: Scott Joplin – “King of Ragtime”

Ch. 7: The Player Piano – Automated Music

Ch. 8: John Philip Sousa – “The March King”

Ch. 9: John Philip Sousa – Recording Artist and Activist

An Overview

Ch. 1: John Lomax – Recording American Roots Music

Ch. 2: Woody Guthrie – “Father of Modern American Folk Music”

Ch. 3: Leadbelly & Pete Seeger: End of the First Wave

Ch. 4: The Kingston Trio – Beginning of the Second Wave

Ch. 5: Joan Baez – “First Lady of Folk Music”

Ch. 6: Peter, Paul & Mary – Balancing the Message

Ch. 7: Robert Zimmerman – The Beginning of an American Icon

Ch. 8: Dylan in New York City

Ch. 9: Dylan after Newport

Ch. 10: The Importance of Dylan

Ch. 11: Folk Music in the 21st Century

An Overview

Ch. 1: The Roots of Country

Ch. 2: Bristol Beginnings

Ch. 3: The Grand Ole Opry

Ch. 4: Cowboys and the Movies

Ch. 5: Western Swing

Ch. 6: Bluegrass: Hillbilly on Caffeine

Ch. 7: Honky-tonk: Merging Two into One

Ch. 8: The Nashville Sound: Country-Pop

Ch. 9: Rockabilly – Country meets R&B

Ch. 10: Country Feminists Find Their Voice

Ch. 11: The Bakersfield Sound

Ch. 12: Austin “Outlaw” Country

Ch. 13: Neo-Traditionalists at the end of the 20th Century

Ch. 14: Mainstreaming Country in the ‘90s

Ch. 15: Redesigning Country in the 21st Century

An Overview

Ch. 1: What is Jazz?

Ch. 2: Before It Was Jazz

Ch. 3: Jazz is Born!

Ch. 4: Early Jazz Musicians

Ch. 5: Louis Armstrong

Ch. 6: Chicago and Harlem – Hub of 1920s Jazz

Ch. 7: Big Band – Jazz Swing!

Ch. 8: Big Band Musicians and Singers

Ch. 9: Jump Blues and Bop

Ch. 10: Cool Jazz

Ch. 11: Hard Bop

Ch. 12: Free Jazz – Breaking the Rules

Ch. 13: Fusion – The Jazz-Rock-Funk Experience

Ch. 14: Third Stream and World Jazz

Ch. 15: New Age & Smooth Jazz

Ch. 16: Summary – Jazz Lives!

An Overview

Ch. 1: Blues – The Granddaddy of American Popular Music

Ch. 2: Where Did the Blues Come From?

Ch. 3: What Are the Blues?

Ch. 4: How to Build the Blues

Ch. 5: Classic Blues – The Early Years

Ch. 6: Delta Blues – Authentic Beginnings

Ch. 7: Blues in the City – Migration and Power

Ch. 8: Blues in Britain – Redefining the Masters

Ch. 9: Contemporary Blues – Maturity and Respect

Ch. 10: The Relevancy of the Blues Today

Ch. 1: Timelines, Cultures & Technology

Ch. 2: Pre-Rock Influences

Ch. 3: Rock is Born!

Ch. 4: Rock is Named

Ch. 5: Doo-Wop

Ch. 6: Independent Record Labels

Ch. 7: Technology Shapes Rock ‘n’ Roll

Ch. 8: The Plan to Mainstream Rock ‘n’ Roll

Ch. 9: Payola – Rock ‘n’ Roll’s First Scandal

Ch. 1: Crafting Sound in the Studio/Producers and Hit Songs

Ch. 2: West Coast Sound: Beach, Surf, and Teens

Ch. 3: The British Invasion: Two Prongs – Pop & Blues

Ch. 4: Motown and the Development of a Black Pop-Rock Sound

Ch. 5: Soul Music: Gospel and R&B in the Deep South

Ch. 6: The Sounds of Bubble Gum Pop-Rock

Ch. 7: The Arrival of Folk-Rock

Ch. 8: Psychedelic Rock ‘n’ Roll

Ch. 9: Early Guitar Gods of Rock

Ch. 10: Rock Festivals: The Rise and Fall of Music, Peace, and Love

Ch. 11: Anti-Woodstock and Shock Rock Movements

Ch. 1: Technological Breakthroughs

Ch. 2: Electronic Dance Music

Ch. 3: Hip-Hop & Rap – An Introduction

Ch. 4: The Beginnings of Rap

Ch. 5: Old School Rap – Up From the Streets

Ch. 6: Rap’s Golden Age

Ch. 7: East Coast – Political Rap

Ch. 8: West Coast – Gangsta Rap

Ch. 9: The Fragmentation of Rap – Pop, Party & More

Ch. 10: Further Fragmentation – Different Directions

Ch. 11: The Importance of Rap

Ch. 1: Musical Stage Productions in America before the 1800s

Ch. 2: Minstrel Shows and Melodramas

Ch. 3: Stage Presentations in the Late 19th Century

Ch. 4: Early 20th Century: Revues and Operettas

Ch. 5: The Arrival of the Modern American Musical

Ch. 6: Great Partnerships in Book-Musicals

Ch. 7: Musical Theatre Composers in the mid-Century

Ch. 8: Fresh Voices on the Stage in the 1960s

Ch. 9: Two Dominant Forces at the End of the Century

Ch. 10: New Voices at the End of the Century

Ch. 11: New Voices, New Sounds in the New Century

Ch. 12: Musical Theatre Glossary

Ch. 13: Is it “Theatre” or “Theater”?

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