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Take – slang for amount of money from ticket sales of a performance.

Tech Rehearsals also Tech Week – rehearsals scheduled in the final weeks before opening night for the singular purpose of bringing the technical aspects of the production (lights, sound, music, and sometimes props & costumes) up to performance quality. Tech rehearsals may be as few as one extended session or several days depending on the complexity of the show. During tech rehearsals, small portions of a scene may be rerun several times in a row in order to isolate and correct technical problems. While the technical problems or transitions are being made, singing, acting and dancing become of secondary importance.

Tenor – the highest male vocal range; above both the baritone and bass voices.

Tin Pan Alley – an area of New York City which housed most of the music publishing companies at the end of the 19th- and first two decades of the 20th-century; also refers to the type of popular song created during this time period.

Tony Awards – The Antoinette Perry Awards are given annually to the best actors, dancers and production staff for musicals and straight plays performed on Broadway in New York City.

Treading the Boards  – Acting in stage (legitimate) theatre as compared to film, radio or television.

Trio – a piece featuring three performers.

Triple-threat – a musical theatre performer who is proficient in all three areas: singing, acting and dancing.

Troupe – see also Company; a group of theatrical performers.

Truck – a moveable platform set that is slide onto the stage from the side wings of the stage; (verb) to slide a platform on stage.

Tryout tour – a preliminary trip to out-of-town theaters to give a show a chance to work out any difficulties before it opens in front of critics in its home theater.

Underscoring – instrumental music that is played during spoken dialogue which adds to the emotion of the moment; also, instrumental music which is played during the changing of scenes.

Understudy – an actor who learns the lines and blocking of a featured role as is prepared to step into the production if the featured performer is unable to go on.

Upstage – the area at the back of the stage, furthest away from the audience.

Upstaging – used to describe the actions of an actor who pulls attention away from the main action in a scene; for example, a chorus member who starts yawning in the middle of a lead actor’s monologue.

Vaudeville – a form of variety stage production that evolved when French street performers (singers, musicians, jugglers, magicians and dancers) were recruited to appear onstage for the French public. Vaudeville came to America in the late 19th-century and replaced the minstrel show as the primary stage entertainment for populace. Together with the minstrel show and the English operetta, vaudeville helped prepare for the development of the American musical in the early 20th-century.

Vocal Introduction – a vocal prefatory passage used in Tin Pan Alley, pop standards and musical songs which helped set the stage for the main part of the song, often called the refrain.

Waltz – a song or dance in 3/4 or triple meter, most often romantic in lyrics, lilting in nature and is frequently the moment when the romantic leads connect emotionally.

West End – London’s equivalent of New York City’s Broadway theatrical district.

Workshop – an experimental presentation of a stage work, play or musical in the early stages of its development. Its purpose is to allow the show’s producer, the playwright or composer to analyze and identify problems before the show appears in its main theater.

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Study Units

An Overview

Ch. 1: Understanding Pitch

Ch. 2: Understanding Musical Pulse

Ch. 3: Understanding Volume

Ch. 4: Understanding Tone

Ch. 5: Understanding Melody

Ch. 6: Understanding Harmony

Ch. 7: Understanding Rhythm

Ch. 8: Understanding Bass

Ch. 9: Understanding Countermelody

Ch. 10: Understanding Structure

Ch. 11: Understanding Instrumentation

Ch. 12: Understanding Tempo

An Overview

Ch. 1: 19th Century: Pre-Foster

Ch. 2: Folk Music by the People

Ch. 3: Popular Music in its Infancy

Ch. 4: Stephen Foster – “Father of American Popular Music”

Ch. 5: The Importance of Stephen Foster

Ch. 6: Scott Joplin – “King of Ragtime”

Ch. 7: The Player Piano – Automated Music

Ch. 8: John Philip Sousa – “The March King”

Ch. 9: John Philip Sousa – Recording Artist and Activist

An Overview

Ch. 1: John Lomax – Recording American Roots Music

Ch. 2: Woody Guthrie – “Father of Modern American Folk Music”

Ch. 3: Leadbelly & Pete Seeger: End of the First Wave

Ch. 4: The Kingston Trio – Beginning of the Second Wave

Ch. 5: Joan Baez – “First Lady of Folk Music”

Ch. 6: Peter, Paul & Mary – Balancing the Message

Ch. 7: Robert Zimmerman – The Beginning of an American Icon

Ch. 8: Dylan in New York City

Ch. 9: Dylan after Newport

Ch. 10: The Importance of Dylan

Ch. 11: Folk Music in the 21st Century

An Overview

Ch. 1: The Roots of Country

Ch. 2: Bristol Beginnings

Ch. 3: The Grand Ole Opry

Ch. 4: Cowboys and the Movies

Ch. 5: Western Swing

Ch. 6: Bluegrass: Hillbilly on Caffeine

Ch. 7: Honky-tonk: Merging Two into One

Ch. 8: The Nashville Sound: Country-Pop

Ch. 9: Rockabilly – Country meets R&B

Ch. 10: Country Feminists Find Their Voice

Ch. 11: The Bakersfield Sound

Ch. 12: Austin “Outlaw” Country

Ch. 13: Neo-Traditionalists at the end of the 20th Century

Ch. 14: Mainstreaming Country in the ‘90s

Ch. 15: Redesigning Country in the 21st Century

An Overview

Ch. 1: What is Jazz?

Ch. 2: Before It Was Jazz

Ch. 3: Jazz is Born!

Ch. 4: Early Jazz Musicians

Ch. 5: Louis Armstrong

Ch. 6: Chicago and Harlem – Hub of 1920s Jazz

Ch. 7: Big Band – Jazz Swing!

Ch. 8: Big Band Musicians and Singers

Ch. 9: Jump Blues and Bop

Ch. 10: Cool Jazz

Ch. 11: Hard Bop

Ch. 12: Free Jazz – Breaking the Rules

Ch. 13: Fusion – The Jazz-Rock-Funk Experience

Ch. 14: Third Stream and World Jazz

Ch. 15: New Age & Smooth Jazz

Ch. 16: Summary – Jazz Lives!

An Overview

Ch. 1: Blues – The Granddaddy of American Popular Music

Ch. 2: Where Did the Blues Come From?

Ch. 3: What Are the Blues?

Ch. 4: How to Build the Blues

Ch. 5: Classic Blues – The Early Years

Ch. 6: Delta Blues – Authentic Beginnings

Ch. 7: Blues in the City – Migration and Power

Ch. 8: Blues in Britain – Redefining the Masters

Ch. 9: Contemporary Blues – Maturity and Respect

Ch. 10: The Relevancy of the Blues Today

Ch. 1: Timelines, Cultures & Technology

Ch. 2: Pre-Rock Influences

Ch. 3: Rock is Born!

Ch. 4: Rock is Named

Ch. 5: Doo-Wop

Ch. 6: Independent Record Labels

Ch. 7: Technology Shapes Rock ‘n’ Roll

Ch. 8: The Plan to Mainstream Rock ‘n’ Roll

Ch. 9: Payola – Rock ‘n’ Roll’s First Scandal

Ch. 1: Crafting Sound in the Studio/Producers and Hit Songs

Ch. 2: West Coast Sound: Beach, Surf, and Teens

Ch. 3: The British Invasion: Two Prongs – Pop & Blues

Ch. 4: Motown and the Development of a Black Pop-Rock Sound

Ch. 5: Soul Music: Gospel and R&B in the Deep South

Ch. 6: The Sounds of Bubble Gum Pop-Rock

Ch. 7: The Arrival of Folk-Rock

Ch. 8: Psychedelic Rock ‘n’ Roll

Ch. 9: Early Guitar Gods of Rock

Ch. 10: Rock Festivals: The Rise and Fall of Music, Peace, and Love

Ch. 11: Anti-Woodstock and Shock Rock Movements

Ch. 1: Technological Breakthroughs

Ch. 2: Electronic Dance Music

Ch. 3: Hip-Hop & Rap – An Introduction

Ch. 4: The Beginnings of Rap

Ch. 5: Old School Rap – Up From the Streets

Ch. 6: Rap’s Golden Age

Ch. 7: East Coast – Political Rap

Ch. 8: West Coast – Gangsta Rap

Ch. 9: The Fragmentation of Rap – Pop, Party & More

Ch. 10: Further Fragmentation – Different Directions

Ch. 11: The Importance of Rap

Ch. 1: Musical Stage Productions in America before the 1800s

Ch. 2: Minstrel Shows and Melodramas

Ch. 3: Stage Presentations in the Late 19th Century

Ch. 4: Early 20th Century: Revues and Operettas

Ch. 5: The Arrival of the Modern American Musical

Ch. 6: Great Partnerships in Book-Musicals

Ch. 7: Musical Theatre Composers in the mid-Century

Ch. 8: Fresh Voices on the Stage in the 1960s

Ch. 9: Two Dominant Forces at the End of the Century

Ch. 10: New Voices at the End of the Century

Ch. 11: New Voices, New Sounds in the New Century

Ch. 12: Musical Theatre Glossary

Ch. 13: Is it “Theatre” or “Theater”?

Study Units also have “Playdecks”which contain hundreds of chronologically organized audio examples of music in the study units, and “Study Q??s” for unit chapters.

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