Study Unit Progress

0% Complete
0/45 Steps

George M. Cohan

George M. Cohan

By 1908, 30-year-old George M. Cohan had established himself as a genius of American musical theatre

While Victor Herbert represented the carefully crafted musical traditions of operetta, at the other end of the musical theatre spectrum was a genius who was less in-tune with Viennese traditions and sculpted orchestrations than he was with street slang, catchy melodies, and uncomplicated harmonies. Not only were they essentially from two different centuries and generations, in physical appearance and approach to the stage they were from two different theatrical worlds. Next to the portly, cultivated, gentlemanly, mustachioed 19th century Victor Herbert, George M. Cohan was a young, dapper, brash, energetic dynamo of a man of the 20th century. While Herbert crafted sophisticated orchestrations with complex harmonies, the musically untrained Cohan, almost twenty years younger, built almost all of his songs from four simple chords he could play on the black keys of the piano.

George M. Cohan was born into a vaudeville family on July 4, 1878. Although the birth certificate states his birth as a day earlier, significant evidence exists that he was, as he said in his song “Yankee Doodle Dandy,” “born on the Fourth of July.” As part of the “Four Cohans¸” George was educated on the boards from age four, travelling the vaudeville circuit with parents and sister Josie. By the end of the 19th century the “Four Cohans” had earned top billing not only on the vaudeville circuit, but in New York, the heart of American theatre.

Cohan began writing songs and sketches for his family while still in his early teens. By his mid-teens he made it his goal to conquer Broadway. His first attempts at full-length musical shows, where the book (story), music, lyrics, direction and choreography were all by twenty-two year-old George M., were moderately received.

Program for 1904 production of Little Johnny Jones

While reading the newspaper late in 1903, Cohan read the story of a flamboyant, swaggering, American jockey who had won the English Derby. Recognizing the seeds of an American, flag-waving story, Cohan wrote the story and music for an iconic milestone of American musical theatre: Little Johnny Jones. Although Cohan’s earlier musicals were vaudeville sketches fleshed out into longer versions, Little Johnny Jones was created from scratch as a complete musical theatre project. In contrast with the multisyllabic rhymes, inane and archaic vocabulary, and awkward grammatical contortions that were characteristics of operetta and more ‘proper’ theatre, Cohan shockingly borrowed slang from the streets of New York and gave his hero dialogue that shocked theatre critics but delighted audiences. Not only was Little Johnny Jones patterned after the common man, he was unashamed in his American bravado. Songs like “I’m A Yankee Doodle Dandy” and “Give My Regards to Broadway” exuberantly celebrated patriotism and connected with a middle-class American theatre audience.

One of the significant features of Little Johnny Jones’ music was its role as an extension of the character’s personality and the action and mood of what was happening at the moment. The songs further aided in progressing the plot development, something not always observed in 19th century musical comedy productions.

Little Johnny Jones was the first great American musical of the 20th century. Opening just one year after Victor Herbert’s operetta masterpiece Babes in Toyland, Cohan’s 1904 work was the antithesis of the aloof, cultured and composed operetta – it was progressive, accessible, cohesive, and modern. While Babes in Toyland was viewed by the public as “art,” Little Johnny Jones was pure “entertainment.” At a time when stages were being given over to operettas like The Count of LuxembourgThe Balkan Princess, The Maid of Athens, and The Girl from Brazil, a musical comedy based in America was a welcome arrival. The exoticism of the stories from afar was becoming a tiresome theatrical trip. One critic at the time called Little Johnny Jones

“… a musical comedy with all the customary insanity eliminated. The characters act and speak and move like really and truly human beings, and while there is no pretense at seriousness, there is no lapse into horse play or imbecility in straining after fun, as there is in so many of the rival attractions.”

When Little Johnny Jones was followed by Forty-five Minutes From Broadway in 1906, which followed the same formula of catchy tunes, accessible lyrics and identifiable characters, it was greeted by audiences with even greater success. Cohan’s creative dominance of Broadway ran until the end of the 1920s when new forms of musical theatre replaced the brash energy of his work, but his place as the “Dynamo of Broadway” was secure. One theatre critic unashamedly acknowledged him to be “an American institution.”


Today, a bronze statue of George M. Cohan stands on Broadway in New York. A movie musical biopic starring James Cagney called Yankee Doodle Dandy came out in 1942, the year Cohan died. A hit Broadway musical, George M, was staged in 1968 with theatre veteran Joel Gray in the lead role.

George M. Cohan’s own words reveal the approach he brought to theatre.

Regarding the pace of his shows, which were stark contrasts with the deliberate and sometimes lumbering unfolding of operettas, Cohan said that the key to his shows was “Speed! Speed! And lots of it! That’s the idea of the thing. Perpetual motion!”

When returning from a tour to surprise a New York production of one of his shows after being gone for several months, he assembled the cast and crew and announced that there would be a “rehearsal tomorrow morning at ten to take out all the improvements” that had been added without his approval.

A close friend of Cohan is quoted as having said:

“George is not the best actor or author or composer or dancer or playwright. But he can dance better than any author, write better than any actor, compose better than any manager, and manage better than any playwright. That makes him a great man.”

When Cohan died, then New York City Mayor La Guardia said of the musical icon – “He put the symbols of American life into the American musical.”

Entertainment newspaper writer Cecil Smith summarized Cohan’s impact on American musical theatre:

“Whatever the merits of their content, Cohan’s musical comedies introduced a wholly new conception of delivery, tempo and subject matter into a form of entertainment that was rapidly dying for want of new ideas of any kind. Brushing aside the artificial elegances based on English and German models, he reproduced successfully the hardness, the compensating sentimentality, and the swift movement of New York life, which, except for surface sophistication, has not changed much between then and now.”

The delineation line for American musical theatre between the ponderous, over-produced and archaic 19th century forms influenced by European models and the modern era of American musical theatre is not only a single show, Little Johnny Jones, it is a single individual, most often recognized as the “Father of the Modern American Musical” – George M. Cohan.

Scroll to Top
Watch and Learn

Audio/Video Room


Study Units

An Overview

Ch. 1: Understanding Pitch

Ch. 2: Understanding Musical Pulse

Ch. 3: Understanding Volume

Ch. 4: Understanding Tone

Ch. 5: Understanding Melody

Ch. 6: Understanding Harmony

Ch. 7: Understanding Rhythm

Ch. 8: Understanding Bass

Ch. 9: Understanding Countermelody

Ch. 10: Understanding Structure

Ch. 11: Understanding Instrumentation

Ch. 12: Understanding Tempo

An Overview

Ch. 1: 19th Century: Pre-Foster

Ch. 2: Folk Music by the People

Ch. 3: Popular Music in its Infancy

Ch. 4: Stephen Foster – “Father of American Popular Music”

Ch. 5: The Importance of Stephen Foster

Ch. 6: Scott Joplin – “King of Ragtime”

Ch. 7: The Player Piano – Automated Music

Ch. 8: John Philip Sousa – “The March King”

Ch. 9: John Philip Sousa – Recording Artist and Activist

An Overview

Ch. 1: John Lomax – Recording American Roots Music

Ch. 2: Woody Guthrie – “Father of Modern American Folk Music”

Ch. 3: Leadbelly & Pete Seeger: End of the First Wave

Ch. 4: The Kingston Trio – Beginning of the Second Wave

Ch. 5: Joan Baez – “First Lady of Folk Music”

Ch. 6: Peter, Paul & Mary – Balancing the Message

Ch. 7: Robert Zimmerman – The Beginning of an American Icon

Ch. 8: Dylan in New York City

Ch. 9: Dylan after Newport

Ch. 10: The Importance of Dylan

Ch. 11: Folk Music in the 21st Century

An Overview

Ch. 1: The Roots of Country

Ch. 2: Bristol Beginnings

Ch. 3: The Grand Ole Opry

Ch. 4: Cowboys and the Movies

Ch. 5: Western Swing

Ch. 6: Bluegrass: Hillbilly on Caffeine

Ch. 7: Honky-tonk: Merging Two into One

Ch. 8: The Nashville Sound: Country-Pop

Ch. 9: Rockabilly – Country meets R&B

Ch. 10: Country Feminists Find Their Voice

Ch. 11: The Bakersfield Sound

Ch. 12: Austin “Outlaw” Country

Ch. 13: Neo-Traditionalists at the end of the 20th Century

Ch. 14: Mainstreaming Country in the ‘90s

Ch. 15: Redesigning Country in the 21st Century

An Overview

Ch. 1: What is Jazz?

Ch. 2: Before It Was Jazz

Ch. 3: Jazz is Born!

Ch. 4: Early Jazz Musicians

Ch. 5: Louis Armstrong

Ch. 6: Chicago and Harlem – Hub of 1920s Jazz

Ch. 7: Big Band – Jazz Swing!

Ch. 8: Big Band Musicians and Singers

Ch. 9: Jump Blues and Bop

Ch. 10: Cool Jazz

Ch. 11: Hard Bop

Ch. 12: Free Jazz – Breaking the Rules

Ch. 13: Fusion – The Jazz-Rock-Funk Experience

Ch. 14: Third Stream and World Jazz

Ch. 15: New Age & Smooth Jazz

Ch. 16: Summary – Jazz Lives!

An Overview

Ch. 1: Blues – The Granddaddy of American Popular Music

Ch. 2: Where Did the Blues Come From?

Ch. 3: What Are the Blues?

Ch. 4: How to Build the Blues

Ch. 5: Classic Blues – The Early Years

Ch. 6: Delta Blues – Authentic Beginnings

Ch. 7: Blues in the City – Migration and Power

Ch. 8: Blues in Britain – Redefining the Masters

Ch. 9: Contemporary Blues – Maturity and Respect

Ch. 10: The Relevancy of the Blues Today

Ch. 1: Timelines, Cultures & Technology

Ch. 2: Pre-Rock Influences

Ch. 3: Rock is Born!

Ch. 4: Rock is Named

Ch. 5: Doo-Wop

Ch. 6: Independent Record Labels

Ch. 7: Technology Shapes Rock ‘n’ Roll

Ch. 8: The Plan to Mainstream Rock ‘n’ Roll

Ch. 9: Payola – Rock ‘n’ Roll’s First Scandal

Ch. 1: Crafting Sound in the Studio/Producers and Hit Songs

Ch. 2: West Coast Sound: Beach, Surf, and Teens

Ch. 3: The British Invasion: Two Prongs – Pop & Blues

Ch. 4: Motown and the Development of a Black Pop-Rock Sound

Ch. 5: Soul Music: Gospel and R&B in the Deep South

Ch. 6: The Sounds of Bubble Gum Pop-Rock

Ch. 7: The Arrival of Folk-Rock

Ch. 8: Psychedelic Rock ‘n’ Roll

Ch. 9: Early Guitar Gods of Rock

Ch. 10: Rock Festivals: The Rise and Fall of Music, Peace, and Love

Ch. 11: Anti-Woodstock and Shock Rock Movements

Ch. 1: Technological Breakthroughs

Ch. 2: Electronic Dance Music

Ch. 3: Hip-Hop & Rap – An Introduction

Ch. 4: The Beginnings of Rap

Ch. 5: Old School Rap – Up From the Streets

Ch. 6: Rap’s Golden Age

Ch. 7: East Coast – Political Rap

Ch. 8: West Coast – Gangsta Rap

Ch. 9: The Fragmentation of Rap – Pop, Party & More

Ch. 10: Further Fragmentation – Different Directions

Ch. 11: The Importance of Rap

Ch. 1: Musical Stage Productions in America before the 1800s

Ch. 2: Minstrel Shows and Melodramas

Ch. 3: Stage Presentations in the Late 19th Century

Ch. 4: Early 20th Century: Revues and Operettas

Ch. 5: The Arrival of the Modern American Musical

Ch. 6: Great Partnerships in Book-Musicals

Ch. 7: Musical Theatre Composers in the mid-Century

Ch. 8: Fresh Voices on the Stage in the 1960s

Ch. 9: Two Dominant Forces at the End of the Century

Ch. 10: New Voices at the End of the Century

Ch. 11: New Voices, New Sounds in the New Century

Ch. 12: Musical Theatre Glossary

Ch. 13: Is it “Theatre” or “Theater”?

Study Units also have “Playdecks” – containing hundreds of chronologically organized audio examples of music in the study units, and “Study Qs” for unit chapters.

Study and Test

Testing Library

Contact Form